Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is no doubt an embarrassing condition. It’s even more frustrating when you brush your mouth twice daily with a toothpaste that doesn’t seem to make any difference. Rest assured that several toothpaste products on the market can effectively deal with this condition and make it a thing of the past. This article will discuss everything you need to know about the best toothpaste for bad breath.
All medical content on this site, including this guide and other product reviews, is written by our team of experienced writers and researchers. All writers from The Toothbrush Expert are recommended and reviewed in the industry. You support us through our editorially chosen links, which earn us commission. Learn moreAll of our picks have the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance.
- Quick Overview (comparison)
- Top 10 Best Toothpaste For Bad Breath
- 1 – FineVine Natural Charcoal Toothpaste (Best Pick 🥇)
- 2 – Oxyfresh Fresh Breath Toothpaste
- 3 – TheraBreath Fresh Breath Toothpaste, toothpaste for bad breath
- 4 – CloSYS Fluoride Toothpaste
- 5 – Marvis Classic Toothpaste
- 6 – Biotene Fluoride Toothpaste
- 7 – Lumineux Oral Essentials Toothpaste
- 8 – Colgate Max Fresh Toothpaste
- 9 – BreathRx Whitening Toothpaste for Bad Breath
- 10 – BreathRx Starter Kit
- Causes Of Bad Breath
- Steps To Improve Your Breath
- Buying Guide on the Best toothpaste for Bad Breath
- Where Do You Pay Attention To When Buying This Product?
- Advantages Of A Toothpaste For Bad Breath
- Disadvantages Of A Toothpaste For Bad Breath
- Frequently Asked Questions on Best Toothpaste for Bad Breath
- Final Verdict
Quick Overview (comparison)
Top 10 Best Toothpaste For Bad Breath
Bearing in mind the severity of bad breath, we put together a team of researchers and dental professionals to find the best toothpaste for bad breath. The team went on to test several of them. At the end of the exercise, our team identified these ten products as the top ones on the market:
1 – FineVine Natural Charcoal Toothpaste (Best Pick 🥇)
Our tests revealed this toothpaste as very effective at combating bad breath and making it a problem of the past for you. It’s specially formulated to whiten, strengthen, and protect sensitive teeth. With assured protection, you’re guaranteed complete cleaning and results. This toothpaste is an excellent choice for you if you’re looking for a natural, safe, fluoride-free activated charcoal formula. Thanks to the natural ingredients, you get to strengthen your gums and refresh your bad breath. The toothpaste is 100% natural, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-free, peroxide-free, fluoride-free, and gluten-free, with your safety in mind.
Besides, this natural toothpaste contains Xylitol, peppermint oil, and organic activated coconut charcoal to effectively eliminate bacteria, coffee, cigarette, tea, or wine stains from your teeth. The active ingredients include baking soda, tea tree oil, diatomaceous earth, and coconut oil to effectively cleanse and detox your mouth, leaving your breath much fresher.
Also, this toothpaste promotes gum health and doesn’t remove enamel from teeth’s enamel. With a mint flavor, you can remove bacteria from your mouth and get a lasting minty-fresh breath. If this product doesn’t thrill you, the manufacturer offers the opportunity to return it and get a full refund, thus guarantee the safety of your money.
- Organic coconut oil
- Organic peppermint oil
- Coconut charcoal powder
- Baking soda
- Freshens breath
- Eliminates bacteria
- Soothes sensitive teeth
- Money-back guarantee
- Hard to squeeze tube
2 – Oxyfresh Fresh Breath Toothpaste
Bad breath, including morning breath, coffee breath, garlic breath, and so on, can be embarrassing and difficult to deal with, but we found another effective toothpaste to help you get rid of them. It offers maximum strength lemon-mint flavor for excitingly fresh breath. For utmost safety, this toothpaste does not contain SLS, dye alcohol, or fluoride. Thanks to Zinc and Oxygene’s patented formula, you get to tackle the source of bad breath and get a quick solution. With this product, you’re not far away from everyday fresh and clean smiles.
Moreover, this mint toothpaste is a low abrasion formula that gently cleans your teeth, thereby making it suitable for even sensitive teeth. It keeps the teeth shining bright, fights plaque, removes tartar, leaving you with an all-day-long clean, fresh feeling. Unlike some other products that mask bad breath through artificial ingredients and flavor, this product is non-toxic and gently gets rid of bad breath. This toothpaste is also infused with natural essential oils that guarantee a fresh and cleaning feeling after every brushing session. The product is clinically proven to enhance plaque index by 9.41% and enhance the gingival index by 16.6%.
- Natural essential oils
- Low abrasion
- Lemon mint flavor
- Offers instant fresh breath
- Reduces tartar and plaque
- Gentle on enamel and gums
- Great taste
3 – TheraBreath Fresh Breath Toothpaste, toothpaste for bad breath
Conquering bad breath is smooth and easy with this specially formulated 4-ounce toothpaste. It is a healthy, natural, effective, and fast-acting solution to bad breath. The product is formulated with fluoride, and it promises to freshen your breath all day and night. Apart from keeping your breath fresh, this toothpaste also prevents tooth decay. Thanks to the blend of natural ingredients, the symptoms of bad breath are directly attacked and reduced. It doesn’t contain harsh ingredients such as SLS, an ingredient that can cause canker sores.
Furthermore, this toothpaste contains aloe vera to soothe the mouth while brushing. It also contains other healthy ingredients that control tartar, cavities, and plaque. The product offers potent oxygenation to fight bad breath at the source. By fighting bad breath at its source, you get instant fresh breath. Dentists often recommend this toothpaste thanks to its reliable formula that successfully gets rid of bad breath. With this dental care product, you get a reliable option to maintain healthy dental hygiene. The manufacturer offers a money-back guarantee that gives you the chance to return the toothpaste if you’re not satisfied with it.
- Mild mint flavor
- No harsh detergents
- Effectively gets rid of morning, stinky breath
- Fights plaque and tartar
- Prevents cavities
- Flavor almost nonexistent
4 – CloSYS Fluoride Toothpaste
If you’re looking to get rid of bad breath issues with a powerful and effective yet gentle toothpaste, this product is just right for you. This product promises powerful results with no harmful ingredients. It contains a potent yet gentle antimicrobial and naturally activated Clorastan for fresher, cleaner, and healthier mouth every brushing session. Clorastan also has the impressive power to kill bacteria in seconds. You’re guaranteed great results without any burning or irritation.
Moreover, this toothpaste is pH balanced to limit acid levels that encourage germ growth in the mouth. The accumulation of plaque or dental biofilm around the gum line can lead to gingivitis development. But this product works hard to reduce this harmful biofilm, leaving you with a healthier and cleaner mouth. This toothpaste does not contain SLS that has been linked to the presence of canker sores. Also, the toothpaste contains fluoride for excellent enamel protection and fight against cavities. Apart from offering protection, it also gently eliminates stains. With the gentle mint flavor, you get a fresher mouth for long hours. The product is available in 3.4-ounce travel size (TSA Carry-on accepted).
- pH balanced
- Gentle mint flavor
- Travel size
- Eliminates dental biofilm
- Freshens breath
- Gentle pH-balanced formula
- Provides excellent enamel protection
- It may burn your mouth
5 – Marvis Classic Toothpaste
Getting rid of bad breath is simple with this toothpaste. It provides fresh breath all-day-long and protects the teeth against plaque, tartar, and tooth decay. While the product has high functionality and efficacy, it has a mild abrasive power that ensures enamel remains safe. This toothpaste possesses a unique formula that contains activated charcoal and is designed to remove tough stains and whiten your teeth.
Besides, this toothpaste does not contain fluoride due to safety reasons. It is also gluten-free, paraben-free, cruelty-free, and vegan (it doesn’t use any ingredient of animal origin). All the ingredients used for this formula guarantees your safety. With a fresh mint flavor, your mouth gets a light tingling sensation that keeps your breath fresh all day long. Also, this toothpaste neutralizes odor-causing bacteria, thereby keeping your mouth fresh after every use. The formula also contains a glycerin and sorbitol base that ensures deep-cleaning without irritation to protect against tooth decay and gum disease. With this special toothpaste, you can reduce your dentist’s trips and maintain healthy dental hygiene. Also, this toothpaste neutralizes odor-causing bacteria, thereby keeping your mouth fresh after every use.
- Activated charcoal
- Bentonite clay
- Fresh mint flavor
- No irritation
- Great taste
- Removes odor-causing bacteria
- Whitens teeth
- It may come unsealed
6 – Biotene Fluoride Toothpaste
Dry mouth has been established to be a leading cause of bad breath. This condition makes your mouth feel uncomfortably dry. It usually happens when your body does not produce sufficient saliva to keep the mouth moist. Dry mouth can threaten your dental health if left untreated. We found a powerful solution to the problem in this toothpaste. This toothpaste is specially formulated to deal with dry mouth. If you ensure regular brushing of two minutes twice daily, you are guaranteed instant results.
Furthermore, this toothpaste contains fluoride to help protect and strengthen your teeth against cavities. It is sugar-free, SLS-free, alcohol-free, and doesn’t irritate a dry mouth. This product is an excellent option if you’re looking to avoid blood blister or canker sores. With fresh mint flavor, you get a chance of freshening your breath and getting rid of dry mouth. Also, it’s recommended that you use this toothpaste every night before bed. Regular use ensures that you completely get rid of dry mouth. The manufacturer offers you the grace of refund within 45 days of purchase. If you’re not satisfied with the product, you can return it within that timeframe and get a full refund.
- Fresh mint flavor
- Fights dry mouth
- No irritation
- Protects against cavities
- Money-back guarantee
- Not for dry mouth
7 – Lumineux Oral Essentials Toothpaste
This product is another toothpaste you can trust when it comes to waging a successful fight against the embarrassing dental condition, bad breath. This product has been clinically proven to protect and enhance the oral microbiome, leaving you with improved digestion, better overall body health, and a refreshing mouth. The toothpaste contains potent essential oils that are quick to neutralize odor-causing toxins, thereby stopping bad breath at the source.
Besides, this toothpaste contains aloe and gentle mint combined with dead sea salt to leave your breath refreshed and your teeth feeling smooth. The dead sea salt is widely regarded as the most potent salt in the world. This is because it contains several minerals that have proven to exceptionally useful in dental care. The toothpaste manufacturer chooses each ingredient carefully for its purity and benefit to ensure that beneficial ingredients are used, and no harmful ingredient is included in the formula. Dentists favor this product and recommend it to their clients because of the reliable, naturally derived ingredients it is made up of.
- Essential oils
- Dead sea salt
- Safe to use
- Neutralizes odor-causing toxins
- Freshens breath
- No toxic ingredient
- An order may come with one tube instead of two
8 – Colgate Max Fresh Toothpaste
One of the best ways to get rid of bad breath is to make freshness overpower it. This toothpaste produces enough freshness to alienate bad breath. It doesn’t give only freshness; it also can fight germs and bacteria responsible for bad breath. This unique formula is packed with hundreds of breath strips that unleash a strong freshness rush for enduring fresh breath.
Also, this toothpaste whitens teeth by eliminating surface stains and fights cavities effectively thanks to fluoride. Such powerful cleaning leaves you with a clean and healthier smile. This product does not contain gluten and sugar, thus making it a very safe formula. Besides, this toothpaste offers a great taste that’s loved by the majority of users. With a cool mint flavor, you get a fresh and pleasant taste that encourages you to brush every time. You don’t have to worry about bad aftertaste when using this product. It may create a mess in your sink, but overall, this is a great product to get rid of bad breath.
- Cool mint flavor
- Freshens breath
- Whitens teeth
- Fights cavities
- Great taste
- Expires quickly
9 – BreathRx Whitening Toothpaste for Bad Breath
This product is a purifying toothpaste that offers a powerful clean just like you want it. It works harder than your regular toothpaste for more impressive results. This toothpaste boasts Zytex, a blend of zinc, eucalyptus oil, and thymol. With this blend, the formula is clinically proven to eliminate odor-causing bacteria and get rid of foul-smelling odors. It also creates an enhanced whitening action that removes tough stains and produces whitened teeth.
Moreover, this toothpaste offers tongue paste to scrape and clean your tongue effectively while there’s a mouth rinse to complete the clean. It has proven to be a worthy weapon against bad breath thanks to all of its incredible functions. Also, this toothpaste cannot irritate your mouth; it leaves you with a long-lasting fresh feeling. It also has a great taste that makes it attractive to use. If you have canker sores, you should give this product a try and expect great results in just weeks. It comes in a pack of three, promising you long-lasting dental protection.
- Whitening action
- Eucalyptus oil
- Cavity protection
- Tartar control
- Clean mint
- Eliminates odor-causing bacteria
- Whitens teeth
- Good taste
- It may irritate your mouth
10 – BreathRx Starter Kit
This product is a complete dental kit that seeks to give you complete cleaning. The kit contains at least four dental care products with different functions but a common purpose – to get rid of bad breath and produce exceptional clean. The products can help you integrate the three-step, Brush-Scrape-Rinse into your daily dental routine. This kit is 100% sugar-free and alcohol-free, so you’re guaranteed safe use. It contains Gentle Tongue Scraper (2-pack), Anti-Bacterial Mouth Rinse (8-fl. oz), Bacterial Tongue Spray (2-oz bottle), and Purifying Toothpaste (4-oz tube).
The Zytex blend of zinc, eucalyptus oil, and thymol delivers the right antibacterial essential oils to kill germs and zinc to neutralize bad breath. With this kit, be assured the only thing you have to lose is your bad breath. The toothpaste helps to eliminate oral malodor and prevent dental decay, leaving you with healthy teeth. The mouth rinse kills odor-causing bacteria and prevents plaque that causes gingivitis. The toothpaste and mouth rinse also leave your mouth fresh and clean. Also, the tongue scraper delivers gentle yet powerful cleaning to leave your tongue feeling very smooth without irritation. However, it’s advised that you do not scrape too hard to avoid any harm to your tongue. The tongue spray can be used after scraping the tongue for complete clean. Overall, you can expect this dental kit to deliver excellent oral care to you.
- Eucalyptus oil
- Gets rid of bad breath
- Removes plaque
- Prevents tooth decay
- Cleans the tongue effectively
- Items may be missing from the package
Causes Of Bad Breath
People often wonder why they have bad breath, especially when they follow a proper oral routine. Several factors are responsible for bad breath. Bad breath can arise even when you brush your teeth twice daily. It may be there are some things you’re not doing right. For instance, if you’re not following the right oral routine or not using an efficient oral care product, you may experience bad breath. Let’s discuss some of the top causes of this embarrassing condition:
Thanks to the food you eat every day, we are at a high risk of breeding bacteria in your mouth. Even when you brush your teeth, there’s the possibility of leaving out some food particles that go on to decay and cause troubles. Bacteria are notorious for multiplying rapidly. They make plaque form on your tongue, teeth, and gums.
Dentists often warn patients against plaque, considering the damage it is capable of doing. The presence of plaque can complicate matters for you and cause bad breath. When you allow it to get out of control, it may form tartar, and you’ll need the help of a dentist.
Foods are also capable of causing your breath to smell poorly. Those that contain garlic and onion are well-known to be causes of bad breath. The bad breath these foods cause doesn’t leave until the foods leave your system. Coffee is another food source of bad breath. It changes the breath smell of those who use it.
Also, when you eat foods low on carbs and heavy on meats, you may start to develop bad breath. Lower amounts of carbs in your body cause it to burn sugar and fat and release ketones that cause halitosis. A low-carb diet can still cause bad breath even when you brush your mouth regularly.
Dry mouth is another leading cause of bad breath. This condition occurs when saliva production is hampered. In this situation, there’s no saliva to wash away odor-causing bacteria. The number one cause of dry mouth is taking medications. Such medications include anti-depressants, antihistamines, decongestants, and blood pressure medications. Not drinking enough water can also cause dry mouth.
Smoking has many side effects, among which is bad breath. It is known to be bad for dental health and also causes halitosis. Smoking also causes dry mouth, which is a significant cause of bad breath. Smoking makes you vulnerable to gum disease that may lead to halitosis.
Poor Oral Hygiene
Many are troubled by halitosis because of how poor they handle their oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene cause gum disease, cavities, and plaque buildup. Dentists recommend that you brush for two minutes daily. They also recommend that you use effective toothpaste and also floss regularly. Electric toothbrushes are mostly favored because they encourage complete cleaning of the mouth. When you don’t do these things properly, you have a high risk of having bad breath.
When brushing your teeth, it’s easy to forget or ignore your tongue. Ignoring it is a bad idea because it is a breeding place for bacteria. When you leave the bacteria to keep on breeding, you get bad breath. You can deal with this by gently brushing your tongue or using a tongue scraper.
Steps To Improve Your Breath
Bad breath is not a condition that cannot be dealt with successfully. All you need to is attack the source(s), refrain from certain practices, and follow a proper oral routine. There are many dental products out there to help you get rid of bad breath. You should consider the following products:
Brushing With Efficient Toothpaste And Toothbrush
This is one of the most popular and used dental products out there. Finding one with the right formula is key to getting rid of bad breath. For instance, the products in our article are specially formulated to fight bad breath and its causes. Later in this article, we will discuss how to identify the right toothpaste for getting rid of bad breath.
You also need an efficient toothbrush to help deploy the toothpaste. We favor an electric toothbrush due to many functions that help it do a good job. A good electric toothbrush has a timer and pacer to encourage proper oral hygiene. Its motion also works hard to break up plaque.
Brushing does a great job of getting rid of plaque on your teeth, but flossing remains one of the best ways to remove decaying food between your teeth. Flossing loosens up all the buildup so you can rinse them out, leaving you with fresh breath. Acquire excellent water flosser and electric toothbrush combination for significant results.
Your toothbrush, toothpaste, and flosser may not do a complete job. You need a mouthwash to enhance your oral care. An effective mouthwash will get between your teeth and remove particles that may cause bad breath. We recommend that you go for alcohol-free options.
Bacteria find the tongue as a comfortable breeding ground, and your toothbrush may not be enough to get rid of them. A tongue scraper can help you remove those bacteria effectively. With this scraper, you can remove odor-causing bacteria, leaving you with fresh breath.
Buying Guide on the Best toothpaste for Bad Breath
Bad breath is a condition that requires quick attention. When you’re battling this condition, you want a toothpaste that can deliver rapid results. There are thousands of toothpaste products on the market, and identifying the right option to help you overcome this problem can be a considerable challenge.
There are certain features that the right toothpaste should have. Together with our team of experts, we have developed a comprehensive buying guide to help you identify the best toothpaste for bad breath.
Where Do You Pay Attention To When Buying This Product?
Before you buy toothpaste for bad breath, you must consider some vital features and factors to help you make the correct choice. We will explain them below and help you identify the best toothpaste for bad breath:
Ingredients of a Toothpaste
Ingredients make up a toothpaste, and they determine its efficacy. There are many essential ingredients essential to dealing with bad breath, including sodium fluoride, triclosan, activated charcoal sodium carbonate, essential oils, zinc, and Dead Sea salt.
The most important is sodium fluoride, as you can see in several toothpaste products on our list. This compound helps to get rid of bacteria before they can become plaque. Plaque is nasty for your oral health and can easily cause bad breath. Sodium fluoride also helps to fight against cavities and whiten your teeth. Stannous fluoride is also an excellent compound for keeping the mouth free from harmful bacteria.
Activated charcoal is perfect for those who have sensitive teeth and still want an efficient toothpaste to help them deal with bad breath. This ingredient offers generous antibacterial support without irritating the teeth and gums.
Triclosan is another vital ingredient in a toothpaste formulated to fight bad breath. This agent is quite effective at eliminating germs and helping gums stay healthy, thus preventing gum disease. But triclosan can also encourage bacteria and germ to develop more resistant, robust versions of themselves. Overall, it is useful but not essential, except you want to fight against gingivitis.
Calcium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate are excellent and effective ingredients for fighting bad breath. They act as effective deodorizers to help eliminate any smell from your mouth. Any toothpaste with these ingredients has an excellent capability to get rid of bad breath and offer fresh breath.
There are also many other ingredients but ensure that any toothpaste you’re buying has a good number of the ingredients we’ve discussed here. The ingredients guarantee excellent results. It’s essential to avoid any toothpaste with Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS), so your breath doesn’t end up smelling worse.
There are some specialized toothpaste products on the market. Some are for whitening while others are for sensitive teeth. There are also some for freshness. Overall, a good toothpaste should clean your teeth by removing food particles and bacteria between your teeth. When shopping for the best toothpaste for bad breath, your goal should be finding a toothpaste that can get rid of plaque, prevent gum disease, and keep your mouth fresh so your halitosis can become a thing of the past.
But these products also offer different effects like we pointed out earlier. If you want to fight bad breath and you have sensitive teeth, it’s only reasonable that you look for a toothpaste that can help you get rid of bad breath and also soothe your sensitive teeth. If you also want whiter teeth, you can consider a whitening toothpaste that can equally get rid of odor-causing bacteria, thereby saving you from bad breath.
Everyone wants a good value for their money, including the wealthiest persons. Several toothpaste products offer several tubes in one package for a low price while others sell one tube at a high price. Of course, quality determines the price, but some products can be overpriced. You must be able to identify the right one at the right price. In the end, you shouldn’t compromise quality because of cost.
Everyone loves a sweet taste. A bitter or unpleasant taste never gives the right feelings. You should be very concerned about the flavor of the toothpaste you’re buying. Considering you’ll put the paste in your mouth twice daily, it must have flavor or taste you can live with. An unpleasant taste can push you away from wanting to clean your mouth properly. Most toothpaste products offer mint flavor, while others offer fruity flavor or no flavor at all.
If you like mint flavor, you should go for a toothpaste that offers that. If you don’t like your toothpaste flavored, go for an option with no flavor at all. The most important thing is, you should choose a toothpaste that offers a taste you’re comfortable with.
Advantages Of A Toothpaste For Bad Breath
A toothpaste for bad breath offers many benefits, especially getting rid of halitosis. We will discuss some of the advantages of this kind of toothpaste below:
Eliminates Bad Breath
Getting rid of bad breath is the number one advantage of toothpaste for bad breath. Such toothpaste ensures that it eliminates all the germs and bacteria capable of causing bad breath.
Toothpaste for bad breath is also formulated to remove plaque, considering it’s a significant cause of bad breath. It ensures plaque is not allowed to build up on your teeth.
When chasing away bad breath, you want a breath, you can be comfortable with, and that is a fresh breath. Toothpaste for bad breath delivers fresh breath.
Toothpaste for bad breath works hard to clean your mouth and remove all food remnants that may cause bacteria to breed inside your mouth. Such cleaning leaves you with a nice clean feeling.
Disadvantages Of A Toothpaste For Bad Breath
While toothpaste for bad breath offers advantages, it also has its disadvantages. We will discuss some of them below:
A toothpaste for bad breath is usually abrasive, albeit low in some cases. Such a product may wear down your tooth enamel, thus making your teeth appear yellowish.
Absence Of Fluoride
As observed in the products on our list, most brands do not contain fluoride. Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. These conditions can also cause bad breath. In the absence of fluoride, it’s more difficult to fight bad breath.
Frequently Asked Questions on Best Toothpaste for Bad Breath
If your toothpaste makes your breath smells bad, then it must contain Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS). This compound is a soapy agent that only produces foam with no cleaning ability. It’s important to avoid it so you don’t make your condition worse.
This can be mostly attributed to dry mouth. When there’s no saliva in the mouth, there’s nothing to wash away odor-causing bacteria, and they get to thrive. Certain foods and beverages may also cause your breath to smell even after brushing your teeth.
Your breath stinks so bad because odor-causing bacteria have accumulated in your mouth, and they have not been eliminated. They accumulate due to food remnants and cause your breath to smell. Smoking can also make your breath stink bad.
You should brush and floss regularly, rinse your mouth correctly, scrape your tongue, avoid foods that smell, avoid smoking, ensure your gums stay healthy, and moisten your mouth.
Yes, it can come through Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is caused by the backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus. This backwash may irritate the lining of your esophagus. This condition can be responsible for bad breath.
After someone realizes they have bad breath, the next step should be searching for a solution. There are many toothpaste products for bad breath on the market. We dissected some of them in this article and also discussed how they can help defeat bad breath. When looking for the best toothpaste for bad breath, ensure that they have a pleasant flavor and the right ingredients to fight halitosis. Have a great day!
Dr Michael Jones is the proud founder of The Toothbrush Expert. He has been working as a dentist for 19 years now. Besides his work as a dentist, Michael wants to help people to find the right dental products. His goal is to provide everyone with honest expert reviews on all kinds of dental care products.